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Existe un debate continuo en la investigación de la adquisición del lenguaje referente a los períodos críticos (PC) en el desarrollo, durante el cual el sistema es más sensible a la entrada del medio ambiente. Los recientes avances en neurobiología proporcionan una explicación mecanicista de los PC. En este artículo, se revisa la literatura sobre el desarrollo de la percepción del habla humana en el contexto de este modelo PC, destacando la investigación que revela la importancia de interacción e influencia de la experimentación, entre otros temas.

Abstract
A continuing debate in language acquisition research is whether there are critical periods (CPs) in development during which the system is most responsive to environmental input. Recent advances in neurobiology provide a mechanistic explanation of CPs, with the balance between excitatory and inhibitory processes establishing the onset andmolecular brakes establishing the offset of windows of plasticity. In this article, we review the literature on human speech perception development within the context of this CP model, highlighting research that reveals the interplay ofmaturational and experiential  influences at key junctures in development and presenting paradigmatic examples testing CP models in human subjects. We conclude with a discussion of how amechanistic understanding of CP processes changes the nature of the debate: The question no longer is, “Are there CPs?” but rather what processes open them, keep them open, close them, and allow them to be reopened.

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Author

Franklin Susanibar Chavez